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Gardening at the Coast

Gardening Tips

 

Plants in coastal gardens have to withstand seasonal gale-force winds, resist the damage caused by salt-laden breezes and grow in sandy soils. Plants selected for gardens at holiday 

homes also need to be able to endure periods with little water. This sounds like a tall order, but there are attractive plants which fit the bill; pick the right ones and you’re sure to have success.

Members of the daisy family, like gazanias, dimorphotheca, ursinias and these Didelta carnosa grow in sandy soil, tolerate wind, help stabilise the sand and reduce evaporation.

IDEAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR COASTAL PLANTS:

 

Tough, leathery grey leaves that reflect the heat and often have a protective covering of hairs. Some examples of plants with these types of leaves are the camphor bush (Tarchonanthus),

coastal silver oak (Brachylaena discolor), mock olive (Buddleia saligna) and the beach salvias.

Leaves with a shiny or waxy coating that reflect the sun, reduce surface evaporation and deflect salt. Look out for them on plants like the white milkwood (Sideroxylon inerme),

coprosmas, the carissas like the num-num and amatungulu plums, and succulents like cotyledons and aloes.

Tiny needle-like leaves such as those found on buchus, coleonemas (confetti bush) and the fynbos ericas whose leaves roll up to reduce evaporation.

Aloes

 

Aloes are a hardy, beautiful species that can be used as shrubs or as structural plants in water-wise gardens.

Numerous species exist in South Africa, and a number of hybrids have been cultivated for the market. Care should be taken not to over-water aloes, which may increase

their susceptibility to disease.

Popular species in include aloe arborescens (krantz aloe), aloe marlothii (mountain aloe), and aloe ferox (bitter aloe).

Note that many aloe species suffer from a leaf scale which can turn the plants white, and homeowners should be proactive in removing this - consult your local nursery

for a solution.

 

Natal Wild Banana (STRELITZIA NICOLAI )

 

Strelitzia’s height and structure add an architectural element to the garden. They can tolerate a fair amount of wind especially as one plant protects the next. Their succulent

roots help them survive dry periods and stabilise the soil, while birds are attracted to the nectar which drips from their ice blue and white flowers. They’re particularly good for the

warmer East Coast gardens. Height: 1,5–5m.

 

 

Trailing Gazanias (GAZANIA RIGENS)

Gazanias are useful spreading groundcovers for coastal gardens as they are both wind and salt tolerant. Not only do they cover the sand quickly, preventing it from being blown

away they help reduce evaporation. Their cheerful bright yellow or orange flowers add colour from midwinter well into summer. Some varieties have dark green leaves, while others 

have grey or variegated leaves as pictured below.

They are easy to grow from slips or rooted cuttings. At the seaside, they should be planted closer together than usual. Height: 20–30cm.

 

 

Planting water wise plants

  • Group plants with similar water needs together and water these zones separately.
  • A layer of mulch over the bed will keep soil moist for longer, and adding compost increases organic matter which improves the soil’s nutrient level and water-holding capacity.

 Look for:

  • Small or needle-like leaves. This minimises the surface area for water to evaporate. Examples are ericas, most acacias, rosemary, origanum and thyme.
  • Few leaves. Some plants reduce water loss by dispensing with leaves altogether, or shedding during drought. Examples are the karee tree, acacias and buffalo thorn.
  • Grey foliage reflects the sun’s rays, keeping the plant cooler which in turn reduces water loss. Examples are lavender, artemesia, arctotis and giant honey flower.
  • Hairs slow down air movement past the stomata, which reduces water loss. Examples are the silver tree, lamb’s ear, beach salvia and helichrysum.
  • Succulents store water in thick fleshy leaves. Think of crassulas, aloes, echevarias and vygies.
  • The leaves of some plants close when they are water stressed. This reduces the amount of leaf exposed to sunlight and reduces water loss. Examples are acacias, Jerusalem sage and rock rose.
  • Waxy leaves prevent moisture loss. Examples are euonymus, kalanchoe and Indian hawthorn.
  • When ‘stressed’, plants with lighter leaves on one side, turn the lighter side upwards to reflect the sun away. Examples are wild olive tree, gazanias and indigenous buddlejas.
  • Plants with a strong internal skeleton support the leaf and prevents wilting during dry spells. Examples are strelitzia, restios, agaves and New Zealand flax.
  • Volatile oils in the stomata forms an extra protection against water loss. This is common in Mediterranean plants, an area which has hot dry summers. Examples are rosemary, lavender and sage.

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